Handbuch html pdf


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Handbuch html pdf

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HTML 5 Tutorial. HTML Interview Questions.

I wrote this book to help you quickly learn HTML and get familiar with the advanced HTML topics. HTML, a shorthand for Hyper Text Markup Language, is one of the most fundamental building blocks of the Web. HTML was officially born in and since then it evolved into its current state, moving from simple text documents to powering rich Web Applications. First, the beginner. I explain HTML from zero in a succinct but comprehensive way, so you can use this book to learn HTML from the basics.

Then, the professional. HTML is often considered like a secondary thing to learn. It might be given for granted. Yet lots of things are obscure to many people. Me included. I wrote this handbook to help my understanding of the topic, because when I need to explain something, I better make sure I first know the thing inside out. Even if you don't write HTML in your day to day work, knowing how HTML works can help save you some headaches when you need to understand it from time to time, for example while tweaking a web page.

There is an incredible power underneath this rather simple and limited set of rules, which lets us -- developers, makers, designers, writers, and tinkerers -- craft documents, apps, and experiences for people all around the globe. My first HTML book came out in and was called "HTML Unleashed". A big, lots-of-pages, long tome.

Sure, we got more semantic tags, presentational HTML is no longer a thing, and CSS has taken care of the design of things. It resisted being hijacked into an XML dialect via XHTML, when eventually people realized that thing was way, way too complex. It did so because of another feature it provides us: forgiveness. There are some rules, right, but after you learn those, you have a lot of freedom. Browsers learned to be resilient and to always try to do their best when parsing and presenting HTML to the users.

And the whole Web platform did one thing right: it never broke backward compatibility. Pretty incredibly, we can go back to HTML documents written inand they look pretty much as they looked back then. We even know what the first web page was. And you can see the source of the page, thanks to another big feature of the Web and HTML: we can inspect the HTML of any web page.

The exceptional Developer Tools built into any browser let us inspect and take inspiration from HTML written by anyone in the world. If you are new to HTML this book aims to help you get started. If you are a seasoned Web Developer this book will improve your knowledge. HTML is a standard defined by the WHATWGan acronym for Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, an organization formed by people working on the most popular web browser.

This means it's basically controlled by Google, Mozilla, Apple and Microsoft. In the past the W3C World Wide Web Consortium was the organization in charge of creating the HTML standard. The control informally moved from W3C to WHATWG when it became clear that the W3C push towards XHTML was not a good idea.

If you've never heard of XHTML, here's a short story. In the early s, we all believed the future of the Web was XML seriously. So HTML moved from being an SGML-based authoring language to an XML markup language. Eventually browser vendors realized this was not the right path for the Web, and they pushed back, creating what is now known as HTML5. W3C did not really agree on giving up control of HTML, and for years we had 2 competing standards, each one aiming to be the official one.

Eventually on 28 May it was made official by W3C that the "true" HTML version was the one published by WHATWG. I mentioned HTML5. Let me explain this little story. I know, it's kind of confusing up to now, as with many things in life when many actors are involved, yet it's also fascinating.

We had HTML version 1 in Here's the original RFC. We got HTML 3 in Januaryand HTML 4 in December HTML5 is a term that now defines a whole set of technologies, which includes HTML but adds a lot of APIs and standards like WebGL, SVG and more.

The key thing to understand here is this: there is no such thing any more as an HTML version now. It's a living standard. Like CSS, which is called "3", but in reality is a bunch of independent modules developed separately. Like JavaScript, where we have one new edition each year, but nowadays, the only thing that matters is which individual features are implemented by the engine. Yes we call it HTML5, but HTML4 is from That's a long time for anything, let alone for the web.

Let's dive into this last case. Although in practice it's probably the least popular way to generate HTML, it's still essential to know the basic building blocks. This HTML snippet creates a list of items using the ul tag, which means unordered listand the li tags, which mean list item :.

When an HTML page is served by the browser, the tags are interpreted, and the browser renders the elements according to the rules that define their visual appearance. Some of those rules are built-in, such as how a list renders or how a link is underlined in blue. HTML is not presentational.

It's not concerned with how things look. Instead, it's concerned with what things mean. It's up to the browser to determine how things look, with the directives defined by who builds the page, with the CSS language. Things start with the Document Type Declaration aka doctypea way to tell the browser this is an HTML page, and which version of HTML we are using. Most tags come in pairs with an opening tag and a closing tag.

There are a few self-closing tags, which means they don't need a separate closing tag as they don't contain anything in them. The html starting tag is used at the beginning of the document, right after the document type declaration. Inside the html element we have 2 elements: head and body :. Inside head we will have tags that are essential to creating a web page, like the title, the metadata, and internal or external CSS and JavaScript.

Mostly things that do not directly appear on the page, but only help the browser or bots like the Google search bot display it properly. Inside body we will have the content of the page. The visible stuff.

Elements have a starting tag and a closing tag. In this example, we use the p starting and closing tags to create a p element:. If an element has doesn't have a closing tag, it is only written with the starting tag, and it cannot contain any text content.

That said, I might use the tag or element term in the book meaning the same thing, except if I explicitly mention starting tag or ending tag. The starting tag of an element can have special snippets of information we can attach, called attributes. The class and id attributes are two of the most common you will find used. The difference between the two is that an id is unique in the context of a web page; it cannot be duplicated. Plus, an id is just one value.

It's common to use the dash - to separate words in a class value, but it's just a convention. Those are just two of the possible attributes you can have. Some attributes are only used for one tag. They are highly specialized. Other attributes can be used in a more general way. You just saw id and classbut we have other ones too, like style which can be used to insert inline CSS rules on an element. HTML is case insensitive. Tags can be written in all caps, or lowercase.

In the early days, caps were the norm. Today lowercase is the norm. It is a convention. Pretty important. In HTML, even if you add multiple white spaces into a line, it's collapsed by the browser's CSS engine. You can find more information on how CSS processes white space in the CSS Spec.

Note: this "white space is not relevant" feature means that if you want to add additional space, it can make you pretty mad. I suggest you use CSS to make more space when needed. I think this should not be abused. CSS is always preferred to alter the visual presentation. It's always written before the body tag, right after the opening html tag:. It's just a container for other tags. Inside it we can have a wide variety of tags, depending on what you need to do:.

The title tag determines the page title. The title is displayed in the browser, and it's especially important as it's one of the key factors for Search Engine Optimization SEO.