Carly handbucher



ISBN: 672655408


Carly handbucher

En febrero de el almirante Juan Bautista Aznar fue designado presidente del consejo por Alfonso XIII. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Fotografiado por Kaulak en En fin, todos los servicios desorganizados y mal atendidos.

Espero al mismo tiempo regenerar la patria y hacerla, si no poderosa, al menos buscada, o sea, que la busquen como aliada. Del diario de Alfonso XIII, 1 de enero de Las elecciones celebradas el domingo me revelan claramente que no tengo hoy el amor de mi pueblo. Pero, resueltamente, quiero apartarme de cuanto sea lanzar a un compatriota contra otro en fratricida guerra civil. Final del manuscrito de renuncia.

Consultado el 16 de febrero de Consultado el 14 de enero de Gaceta de Madrid Consultado el 30 de diciembre de Google Libros. Consultado el 12 de abril de ABC Blanco y Negro Madrid. Consultado el 26 de febrero de La Aventura de la Historia ISSN X.

El precio del trono. Barcelona: Planeta. La mentira cotidiana de FrancoEdiciones B, BarcelonaISBN Consultado el 15 de julio de Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza. Flatiron Books. Consultado el 31 de agosto de Almanach de Gotha. Consultado el 31 de octubre de The Knights of England: A Complete Record from the Earliest Time to the Present Day of the Knights of All the Orders of Chivalry in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and of Knights Bachelors.

Genealogical Publishing Com. Consultado el 31 de mayo de Im königlichen Central -Schulbücher-Verlage. Consultado el 4 de marzo de Consultado el 7 de marzo de Nouvelles Editions Latines. Consultado el 14 de octubre de Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Alfonso XII. Cripta Real del Monasterio de El Escorial. Palacio Real de Madrid. Victoria Eugenia de Battenberg Francisco I de las Dos Sicilias. Leopoldo II de Austria. Carlos Luis de Austria.

Carlos Fernando de Austria. Federico Guillermo de Nassau-Weilburg. Enriqueta de Nassau-Weilburg. Luisa Isabel, condesa de Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hachenburg. Isabel Francisca de Austria. Luis Federico de Wurtemberg. Predecesor: Alfonso XII. Sucesor: Juan III. Predecesor: Carlos XII. Sucesor: Enrique VI.

It is the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, [11] [12] and is located south of Turkey ; west of Syria ; northwest of LebanonIsrael and Palestine ; north of Egypt ; and southeast of Greece. Nicosia is the country's capital and largest city. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC.

Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitiaand Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. As a strategic location in the Eastern Mediterraneanit was subsequently occupied by several major powersincluding the empires of the AssyriansEgyptians and Persiansfrom whom the island was seized in BC by Alexander the Great.

Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egyptthe Classical and Eastern Roman EmpireArab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetianswas followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between and de jure until Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in and was formally annexed by the UK in From the 19th century onwards, the Greek Cypriot population pursued enosisunion with Greecewhich became a Greek national policy in the s.

This action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, [24] which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus and the displacement of overGreek Cypriots [25] [26] and 50, Turkish Cypriots. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute. The Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zonewith the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekeliawhich remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements.

The international community considers the northern part of the island to be territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium"metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum.

The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are also used, though less frequently. The state's official name in Greek literally translates to "Cypriot Republic" in English, but this translation is not used officially; "Republic of Cyprus" is used instead. The earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnossituated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10, BC[47] with settled village communities dating from BC.

The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus.

During the late Bronze Age the island experienced two waves of Greek settlement. After c. Cyprus is at a strategic location in the Middle East. The revolt was suppressed, but Cyprus managed to maintain a high degree of autonomy and remained inclined towards the Greek world. Following his death and the subsequent division of his empire and wars among his successorsCyprus became part of the Hellenistic empire of Ptolemaic Egypt.

It was during this period that the island was fully Hellenized. When the Roman Empire was divided into Eastern and Western parts inCyprus became part of the East Roman, or Byzantine Empireand would remain so until the Crusades some years later. Under Byzantine rule, the Greek orientation that had been prominent since antiquity developed the strong Hellenistic-Christian character that continues to be a hallmark of the Greek Cypriot community.

Beginning inCyprus endured several attacks launched by raiders from the Levantwhich continued for the next years. Many were quick piratical raids, but others were large-scale attacks in which many Cypriots were slaughtered and great wealth carried off or destroyed. There are no Byzantine churches which survive from this period; thousands of people were killed, and many cities — such as Salamis — were destroyed and never rebuilt.

Induring the Third CrusadeRichard I of England captured the island from Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus [64] He used it as a major supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens. A year later Richard sold the island to the Knights Templarwho, following a bloody revolt, in turn sold it to Guy of Lusignan. His brother and successor Aimery was recognised as King of Cyprus by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.

Following the death in of James IIthe last Lusignan king, the Republic of Venice assumed control of the island, while the late king's Venetian widow, Queen Catherine Cornaroreigned as figurehead. Venice formally annexed the Kingdom of Cyprus infollowing the abdication of Catherine. Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire frequently raided Cyprus. In the Ottomans destroyed Limassol and so fearing the worst, the Venetians also fortified Famagusta and Kyrenia.

Although the Lusignan French aristocracy remained the dominant social class in Cyprus throughout the medieval period, the former assumption that Greeks were treated only as serfs on the island [55] is no longer considered by academics to be accurate. It is now accepted that the medieval period saw increasing numbers of Greek Cypriots elevated to the upper classes, a growing Greek middle ranks[65] and the Lusignan royal household even marrying Greeks.

This included King John II of Cyprus who married Helena Palaiologina. Ina full-scale Ottoman assault with 60, troops brought the island under Ottoman control, despite stiff resistance by the inhabitants of Nicosia and Famagusta. Ottoman forces capturing Cyprus massacred many Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants. The Ottomans abolished the feudal system previously in place and applied the millet system to Cyprus, under which non-Muslim peoples were governed by their own religious authorities.

In a reversal from the days of Latin rule, the head of the Church of Cyprus was invested as leader of the Greek Cypriot population and acted as mediator between Christian Greek Cypriots and the Ottoman authorities. This status ensured that the Church of Cyprus was in a position to end the constant encroachments of the Roman Catholic Church.

The ratio of Muslims to Christians fluctuated throughout the period of Ottoman domination. In —78, 47, Muslims constituted a majority over the island's 37, Christians. As soon as the Greek War of Independence broke out inseveral Greek Cypriots left for Greece to join the Greek forces. In response, the Ottoman governor of Cyprus arrested and executed prominent Greek Cypriots, including the Archbishop of Cyprus, Kyprianosand four other bishops.

After centuries of neglect by the Ottoman Empire, the poverty of most of the people and the ever-present tax collectors fuelled Greek nationalism, and by the 20th century idea of enosisor union, with newly independent Greece was firmly rooted among Greek Cypriots. Under the Ottoman rule, numeracy, school enrolment and literacy rates were all low.

They persisted sometime after Ottoman rule ended and then increased rapidly during the twentieth century. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War — and the Congress of BerlinCyprus was leased to the British Empire which de facto took over its administration in though, in terms of sovereignty, Cyprus remained a de jure Ottoman territory until 5 Novembertogether with Egypt and Sudan [14] in exchange for guarantees that Britain would use the island as a base to protect the Ottoman Empire against possible Russian aggression.

The island would serve Britain as a key military base for its colonial routes. Bywhen the Famagusta harbour was completed, Cyprus was a strategic naval outpost overlooking the Suez Canalthe crucial main route to India which was then Britain's most important overseas possession. Following the outbreak of the First World War and the decision of the Ottoman Empire to join the war on the side of the Central Powerson 5 November the British Empire formally annexed Cyprus and declared the Ottoman Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan a Sultanate and British protectorate.

InBritain offered Cyprus to Greece, ruled by King Constantine I of Greeceon condition that Greece join the war on the side of the British. The offer was declined. Inunder the Treaty of Lausannethe nascent Turkish republic relinquished any claim to Cyprus, [81] and in it was declared a British crown colony. The Greek Cypriot population, meanwhile, had become hopeful that the British administration would lead to enosis.

The idea of enosis was historically part of the Megali Ideaa greater political ambition of a Greek state encompassing the territories with Greek inhabitants in the former Ottoman Empire, including Cyprus and Asia Minor with a capital in Constantinopleand was actively pursued by the Cypriot Orthodox Churchwhich had its members educated in Greece. These religious officials, together with Greek military officers and professionals, some of whom still pursued the Megali Ideawould later found the guerrilla organisation Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston or National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters EOKA.

Initially, the Turkish Cypriots favoured the continuation of the British rule. Nationalistic slogans centred on the idea that "Cyprus is Turkish" and the ruling party declared Cyprus to be a part of the Turkish homeland that was vital to its security. The slogan "Partition or Death" was frequently used in Turkish Cypriot and Turkish protests starting in the late s and continuing throughout the s.

Although after the Zürich and London conferences Turkey seemed to accept the existence of the Cypriot state and to distance itself from its policy of favouring the partition of the island, the goal of the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot leaders remained that of creating an independent Turkish state in the northern part of the island.

Restricted autonomy under a constitution was proposed by the British administration but eventually rejected. In the EOKA organisation was founded, seeking union with Greece through armed struggle. At the same time the Turkish Resistance Organisation TMTcalling for Taksim, or partition, was established by the Turkish Cypriots as a counterweight.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies in a letter dated 15 July had advised the Governor of Cyprus not to act against T. T despite its illegal actions so as not to harm British relations with the Turkish government. On 16 AugustCyprus attained independence after the Zürich and London Agreement between the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey. Cyprus had a total population of ,; of whom However, the division of power as foreseen by the constitution soon resulted in legal impasses and discontent on both sides, and nationalist militants started training again, with the military support of Greece and Turkey respectively.

The Greek Cypriot leadership believed that the rights given to Turkish Cypriots under the constitution were too extensive and designed the Akritas planwhich was aimed at reforming the constitution in favour of Greek Cypriots, persuading the international community about the correctness of the changes and violently subjugating Turkish Cypriots in a few days should they not accept the plan.

Intercommunal violence erupted on 21 Decemberwhen two Turkish Cypriots were killed at an incident involving the Greek Cypriot police. The violence resulted in the death of Turkish and Greek Cypriots, [99] destruction of Turkish Cypriot or mixed villages and displacement of 25,—30, Turkish Cypriots. The crisis resulted in the end of the Turkish Cypriot involvement in the administration and their claiming that it had lost its legitimacy; [19] the nature of this event is still controversial.

In some areas, Greek Cypriots prevented Turkish Cypriots from travelling and entering government buildings, while some Turkish Cypriots willingly withdrew due to the calls of the Turkish Cypriot administration. The republic's structure was changed, unilaterally, by Makarios, and Nicosia was divided by the Green Linewith the deployment of UNFICYP troops. InTurkey threatened to invade Cyprus [] in response to the continuing Cypriot intercommunal violencebut this was stopped by a strongly worded telegram from the US President Lyndon B.

Johnson on 5 June, warning that the US would not stand beside Turkey in case of a consequential Soviet invasion of Turkish territory. Greece dispatched 10, troops to Cyprus to counter a possible Turkish invasion. This justification has been rejected by the United Nations and the international community. The Turkish air force began bombing Greek positions in Cyprus, and hundreds of paratroopers were dropped in the area between Nicosia and Kyrenia, where well-armed Turkish Cypriot enclaves had been long-established; while off the Kyrenia coast, Turkish troop ships landed 6, men as well as tanks, trucks and armoured vehicles.

Three days later, when a ceasefire had been agreed, [] Turkey had landed 30, troops on the island and captured Kyrenia, the corridor linking Kyrenia to Nicosia, and the Turkish Cypriot quarter of Nicosia itself. In Nicosia, Glafkos Clerides temporarily assumed the presidency. Among a variety of sanctions against Turkey, in mid the US Congress imposed an arms embargo on Turkey for using US-supplied equipment during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in After the restoration of constitutional order and the return of Archbishop Makarios III to Cyprus in DecemberTurkish troops remained, occupying the northeastern portion of the island.

The events of the summer of dominate the politics on the island, as well as Greco-Turkish relations. Turkish settlers have been settled in the north with the encouragement of the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot states. The Republic of Cyprus considers their presence a violation of the Geneva Convention[19] whilst many Turkish settlers have since severed their ties to Turkey and their second generation considers Cyprus to be their homeland.

The Turkish invasion, the ensuing occupation and the declaration of independence by the TRNC have been condemned by United Nations resolutions, which are reaffirmed by the Security Council every year. Inthe Annan Plandrafted by the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan. The plan was put to a referendum in both Northern Cyprus and the Cypriot Republic. On 1 May Cyprus joined the European Uniontogether with nine other countries.

Efforts have been made to enhance freedom of movement between the two sides. In AprilNorthern Cyprus unilaterally eased border restrictions, permitting Cypriots to cross between the two sides for the first time in 30 years.