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Full text of " Science In History Vol. His first formal research work was done at the Davy-Faraday Laboratory under Sir William Bragg. Later he returned to Cambridge as a lecturer and became Assistant Director of Research in Crystallography In he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and in the same year was appointed to the Chair of Physics at Birkbeck College, University of London.

In he was translated to the new Chair of Crystallography. During the war Professor Bernal became scientific adviser to the Chief of Combined Operations. In 1 he was appointed Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Ministry of Works, later serving on its Advisory Council on Building.

He is a Foreign Member of the Academies of Sciences of the U. He has examined increasingly complex biological materials and has made fundamental contributions. More recently he has made great syntheses of the fields of the origin of life and of the solar system. He directs a laboratory, the interests of which include the structures of industrial products.

He has always been concerned with the past, present and future history of science and its social implications. He was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in and the Grotius Medal in Bernal In 4 volumes Science in History Volume 2 : The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions io6 illustrations Penguin Books Penguin Books Ltd, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England Penguin Books Australia Lid, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia First published by C.

Ltd, Third edition Illustrated edition published simultaneously by C. Contents VOLUME 2 Acknowledgements Acknowledgements to the Illustrated Edition Note Part 4 The Birth of Modem Science Introduction to Part 4 Chapter 7: The Scientific Revolution 7. In particular 1 would like to thank Dr E. Burhop, Mr Emile Burns, Professor V. Childe, Mr Maurice Cornforth, Mr Cedric Dover, Mr R.

Palme Dutt, Dr W. Ehrenberg, Professor B. Farrington, Mr J. L, Fyfe, Mr Christopher Hill, Dr S. Lilley, Mr J. Morris, Dr J. Needham, Dr D. Newth, Dr M. Ruhemann, Professor G. Thomson and Dona Torr. They have seen and commented on various chapters of the book in its earlier stages, and I have attempted to rewrite them in line with their criticisms. None, however, have seen the final form of the work and they are in no sense responsible for the statements and views I express in it.

Miss A. Rimel, and her assistants, Mrs J. Fergusson and Miss R. Clayton, for their help in the technical preparation of the book - a considerable task, as it was almost completely rewritten some six times - and its index. My thanks are also due to the librarians and their staffs at the Royal Society, The Royal College of Physicians, The University of London, Birkbeck College, The School of Oriental and African Studies, and the Director and Staff of the Science Museum, London.

Finally, I would like to record my gratitude to my assistant, Mr Francis Aprahamian, who has been indefatigable in searching for and collecting the books, quotations and other material for the work and in correcting manuscripts and proofs. Without his help I could never have attempted a book on this scale.

I should also like to thank Anne Murray, who has been responsible for correlating all the modifications involved in producing a four- volume version and for correcting the proofs. Finally, I thank my personal assistant, Francis Aprahamian, who advised the publishers at all stages of the production of this edition. Note In the first edition of this book, I avoided the use of footnotes.

The notes have been collected together at the end of each volume and are referred to by their page numbers. The reference numbers in the text relate to the bibliography, which is also to be found at the end of each volume. The bibliography has eight parts that correspond to the eight parts of the book.

Volume i contains Parts ; Volume 2 contains Parts 4 and 5; Volume 3 contains Part 6; Volume 4 contains Parts 7 and 8. Part I of the bibliography is divided into three sections. The first con- tains books that cover the whole work, including general histories of science. The second section contains histories of particular sciences and the books relevant to Part i.

The third section lists periodicals to which reference has been made throughout the book. Parts 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the bibliography are each divided into two sec- tions. The first section in each case contains the more important books relevant to the part, and the second the remainder of the books. In Part 6 of the bibliography, the first section contains books covering the introduction and Chapter 10, the physical sciences; and the second section, Chapter 1 1the biological sciences.

Part 7 of the bibliography contains books covering the introduction and Chapters 12 and 13, the social sciences. Part 8 of the bibliography contains books covering Chapter 14, the conclusions. The system of reference is as follows : the first number refers to the part of the bibliography; the second to the number of the book in that part; and the third, when given, to the page in the book referred to. Thus 2. PART 4 The Birth of Modern Science Introduction to Part 4 The development of towns, trade, and industry that was gaining moment- um towards the end of the Middle Ages was to prove incompatible with the economy of feudalism.

These changes slowly maturing under the surface of the feudal order finally found expression, and in one place after another inaugurated a new order in economy and science. With better techniques, better modes of transport, and more ample markets, the production of commodities for sale steadily increased. The towns where these markets were found had long played a subsidiary, almost parasitic, role in feudal economy; but by the fifteenth century the burghers or bourgeoisie had grown so strong that they were beginning to transform that economy into one in which money payments and not forced services determined the form of production.

The triumph of the bourgeoisie, and of the capitalist system of economy which they evolved, took place only after the most severe political, religious, and intellectual struggles. Naturally the process of transformation was slow and uneven; it had begun already in the thirteenth century in Italy, yet it was not until the mid seventeenth century that the bourgeoisie had established their rule even in the most progressive countries of Britain and Holland.

Another two hundred years were to elapse before the same class had come to control the whole of Europe. The same period - - that saw the development of capitalism as the leading method of production also witnessed that of experiment and calculation as the new method of natural science. The transforma- tion was a complex one; changes in techniques led to science, and science in turn was to lead to new and more rapid changes in technique.

This combined technical, economic, and scientific revolution is a unique social phenomenon. Its ultimate importance is even greater than that of the discovery of agriculture, which had made civilization itself possible, because through science it contained in itself the possibilities of indefinite advance. Professor Butterfield claims for instance that the so-called scientific revolution.

There can hardly be a field in which it is of greater moment for us to see While I disagree profoundly with the analyses he gives, I fully concede the importance of the problem. The movements of capitalism and science are related, though much too intimately for that relationship to be expressed in simple terms of cause and effect.

It can, however, be said that at the beginning of the period the economic factor was dominant. It was the conditions of the rise of capitalism that made that of experimental science possible and necessary. Towards the end of the period the reverse effect was beginning to be felt. The practical successes of science were already contributing to the next great technical advance - the Industrial Revolution.

Thus it was in this period that natural science passed its critical point, ensuring its permanent place as part of the productive forces of society. If capitalism first made science possible, science in its turn was to make capitalism unnecessary. In its early stages, however, when capitalism was breaking the bonds of a decaying feudalism, it was vigorous and expansive.

The use of the technical devices of the late Middle Ages enabled agriculture, manufac- ture, and trade to increase and spread over ever larger areas. The material needs of the economic advance led to further developments of techniques, particularly those of mining, warfare, and navigation. These, in turn, led to new problems arising out of the behaviour of new materials and processes, which put a strain on the science of classical times in which such inventions as the compass and gunpowder had had no place.

The voyages of discovery showed how limited were the experiences of the Ancients, and strengthened the need to find a new philosophy that could see further and do more. By the beginning of the seventeenth century a new and enterprising bourgeoisie was able to respond to this stimulus and build up the essen- tials of experimental science.

The new scientists came to be organized, as the merchant adventurers had been, into companies. Before the century was over a small group of able men had been successful in solving the central problems of mechanics and astronomy. They thus provided more than the science of the Ancients had ever done - practical help where it was needed: in navigation.

But this was only a slight foretaste; their real triumph lay in the fresh impetus to the scientific study of technique and of Nature, and to the elaboration of the new experimental and mathe- matical methods of analysing and solving them, which were to produce their full fruits in later centuries. Up to the end of the seventeenth century science had far more to gain from its renewed contacts with practical work than it had to give in the way of radical improvements in technique.

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