Rational planerhandbuch


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Rational planerhandbuch

Rational decision making is a multi-step process, from problem identification through solution, for making logically sound decisions. Rational decision making is a multi-step process for making choices between alternatives. The process of rational decision making favors logic, objectivity, and analysis over subjectivity and insight.

Rational-decision-making model : This flowchart illustrates the process of rational decision making. The rational model of decision making assumes that people will make choices that maximize benefits and minimize any costs. The idea of rational choice is easy to see in economic theory. For example, most people want to get the most useful products at the lowest price; because of this, they will judge the benefits of a certain object for example, how useful is it or how attractive is it compared to those of similar objects.

They will then compare prices or costs. In general, people will choose the object that provides the greatest reward at the lowest cost. The rational-decision-making model does not consider factors that cannot be quantified, such as ethical concerns or the value of altruism. It leaves out consideration of personal feelings, loyalties, or sense of obligation. Its objectivity creates a bias toward the preference for facts, data and analysis over intuition or desires.

Critics of the rational model argue that it makes unrealistic assumptions in order to simplify possible choices and predictions. Summarize the inherent flaws and arguments against the rational model of decision-making within a business context. Critics of rational choice theory —or the rational model of decision-making—claim that this model makes unrealistic and over-simplified assumptions. Their objections to the rational model include:.

Prospect theory reflects the empirical finding that, contrary to rational choice theory, people fear losses more than they value gains, so they weigh the probabilities of negative outcomes more heavily than their actual potential cost. Other researchers in the field of behavioral economics have also tried to explain why human behavior often goes against pure economic rationality.

This theory was proposed by Herbert A. Simon as a more holistic way of understanding decision-making. Bounded rationality shares the view that decision-making is a fully rational process; however, it adds the condition that people act on the basis of limited information. Because decision-makers lack the ability and resources to arrive at the optimal solution, they instead apply their rationality to a set of choices that have already been narrowed down by the absence of complete information and resources.

People frequently employ alternative, non-rational techniques in their decision making processes. The rational model of decision making holds that people have complete information and can objectively evaluate alternatives to select the optimal choice. The rationality of individuals is limited, however, by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision. To account for these limitations, alternative models of decision making offer different views of how people make choices.

American psychology and economics researcher Herbert A. Simon defined two cognitive styles: maximizers and satisficers. They also tend to regret their decisions more often perhaps because they are more able than satisficers to recognize when a decision has turned out to be sub-optimal. On the other hand, satisficers recognize that decision makers lack the ability and resources to arrive at an optimal solution. They instead apply their rationality only after they greatly simplify the choices available.

Thus, a satisficer seeks a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one. German psychologist Gerd Gigerenzer goes beyond Simon in dismissing the importance of optimization in decision making. He argues that simple heuristics—experience-based techniques for problem-solving—can lead to better decision outcomes than more thorough, theoretically optimal processes that consider vast amounts of information. Where an exhaustive search is impractical, heuristic methods are used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution.

Emotion is a factor that is typically left out of the rational model; however, it has been shown to have an influential role in the decision-making process. Because decisions often involve uncertainty, individual tolerance for risk becomes a factor. Thus, fear of a negative outcome might prohibit a choice whose benefits far outweigh the chances of something going wrong.

Robust decision making RDM is a particular set of methods and tools developed over the last decade—primarily by researchers associated with the RAND Corporation—that is designed to support decision making and policy analysis under conditions of deep uncertainty. RDM focuses on helping decision makers identify and develop alternatives through an iterative process.

This process takes into account new information and considers multiple scenarios of how the future will evolve. Privacy Policy. Skip to main content. Decision Making. Search for:. Rational and Nonrational Decision Making. Rational Decision Making Rational decision making is a multi-step process, from problem identification through solution, for making logically sound decisions.

Learning Objectives Explain the characteristics of the rational decision-making process. Key Takeaways Key Points Rational decision making favors objective data and a formal process of analysis over subjectivity and intuition. The model of rational decision making assumes that the decision maker has full or perfect information about alternatives; it also assumes they have the time, cognitive ability, and resources to evaluate each choice against the others.

This model assumes that people will make choices that will maximize benefits for themselves and minimize any cost. Key Terms Rational decision making : A logical, multi-step model for choosing between alternatives that follows an orderly path from problem identification through solution. Problems with the Rational Decision-Making Model Critics of the rational model argue that it makes unrealistic assumptions in order to simplify possible choices and predictions.

Learning Objectives Summarize the inherent flaws and arguments against the rational model of decision-making within a business context. Because decision-makers lack the ability and resources to arrive at optimal solutions, they often seek a satisfactory solution rather than the optimal one. Key Terms Rational choice theory : A framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.

Non-Rational Decision Making People frequently employ alternative, non-rational techniques in their decision making processes. Key Takeaways Key Points The rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision.

Some research has shown that simple heuristics frequently lead to better decisions than the theoretically optimal procedure. Robust Decision Making RDM is a particular set of methods and tools that is designed to support decision making under conditions of uncertainty. Key Terms rational : Logically sound; not contradictory or otherwise absurd.

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RationalWiki is a wiki whose stated goals are to "analyze and refute pseudoscience and the anti-science movement, document 'crank' ideas, explore conspiracy theoriesauthoritarianismand fundamentalismand analyze how these subjects are handled in the media. In AprilPeter Lipson, a doctor of internal medicineattempted to edit Conservapedia 's article on breast cancer to include evidence against Conservapedia's claim that abortion was linked to the disease.

Conservapedia is an encyclopedia established by Andy Schlafly as an alternative to Wikipediawhich Schlafly perceived as suffering from a liberal and atheist bias. He and Conservapedia administrators "questioned [Lipson's] credentials and shut down debate". After they were blocked, "Lipson and several other contributors quit trying to moderate the articles [on Conservapedia] and instead started their own website, RationalWiki".

Prior toRationalWiki's domains were registered to Trent Toulouse, and the wiki was hosted from a server located in his home. RationalWiki differs in several ways from the philosophy of Wikipedia and some other informational wikis.

It is written from a self-described "snarky point of view" SPOV rather than a " neutral point of view " NPOVand publishes opinion, speculation, and original research. A significant fraction of activity on RationalWiki used to be critiquing and "monitor[ing] Conservapedia". Both Yan et. Examining RationalWiki, Conservapedia, and Wikipedia, Knoche et al.

Racial bias was found only in Conservapedia, in the "pleasant" vs. Knoche et al. Andrea Ballatore, a lecturer in GIS at the University of California, Santa Barbaracategorizes RationalWiki as a debunking website in a study, finding it to be the third most visible website when researching conspiracy theories in terms of Google and Bing search results, slightly more visible than rense.

In Intelligent SystemsAlexander Shvets stated that RationalWiki is one of the few online resources that "provide some information about pseudoscientific theories" and notes that it attempts to "organize and categorize knowledge about pseudoscientific theories, personalities, and organizations". RationalWiki has been cited on Internet history. Snopes has repeatedly quoted RationalWiki for background on Sorcha Faal of the European Union Times.

The Daily Beast writer Charles Davis alleges that, according to LibCom. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rationalwiki. Free-access wiki written to criticize religion, government, and pseudoscience. This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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Series: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Vol. Springer Publishing. A Method of Automatic Detection of Pseudoscientific Publications, page et seq. Bowling Green State University dissertation. Archived from the original on October 3, Retrieved October 3, Government Soon". Retrieved August 19, Perspectives on Information. Creationism and Anti-Creationism in the United States: A Sociology of Conflict.

Wikipedia U: Knowledge, Authority, and Liberal Education in the Digital Age. JHU Press. Buffalo Law Review. The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved October 6, Artificial Intelligence: Evolution, Ethics and Public Policy. Routledge India. The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved November 28, Categories : American websites Critics of alternative medicine Critics of creationism Free-content websites Internet properties established in MediaWiki websites Scientific skepticism Wiki communities Wikis.

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