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ERLAUTERUNG:Porsche 944 handbuch
Manuals Brands Porsche Manuals Automobile Workshop manual Porsche Workshop Manual Porsche automobile workshop manual. Quick Links. See also: Driver ManualWorkshop Manual. Table of Contents. Workshop Manuel. Related Manuals for Porsche Engine Porsche Workshop Manual pages.
Volume 6 heating ventilation air condition electrics 76 pages. Automobile Porsche Targa User Handbook Manual 54 pages. Summary of Contents for Porsche Page 1 Workshop Manuel Volume IA - Engine, 16 valves DR. Page 2 General Technical data Maintenance, Self-diagnosis Fault diagnosis, DEE control unit Connecting into the vehicle - S Starting fault diagnosis Functional test - actuator and input signal List of test codes System adaptation Knock detection Troubleshooting List of fault codes Clearing fault memory Operating conditions for start of diagnosis Operating instructions for System Tester Engine, Crankcase Page 4: Technical Data General TYPE S VALVE ENGINES - '87 MODELS ONWARD Printed in Germany - XIII, Technical Data Page 5 General TECHNICAL DATA Adjustment specifications and wear data are stated in the appropriate Repair Groups Note: US values are stated in parentheses DRIVE UNIT Internal engine designation Number of cylinders Bore Stroke Displacement actual Compression ratio Max.
Page 6 Crankcase Crankshaft Crankshaft bearings Connecting rods Connecting rod-bearings Pistons Balance shafts Balance-shaft bearings Cylinders Cylinder head Valve guide Valve arrangement Valve timing Camshaft Camshaft drive Balance-shaft drive Valve clearance Timing Printed in Germany - XIII, Two-part light alloy crankcase Forged, 5 bearings Plain Cast, opt.
Track: Front Rear Ground clearance at per. Page 10 Max. Page 12 Technical data - Type 52 - Model 89 Values for adjustment and wear are to be found in the respective repair groups Notes: USA values are given in brackets Drive unit Internal engine designation Bore Stroke Displacement actual Displacement rounded down Compression ratio Max. Page 13 DME control unit error diagnosis S as from 88 model As from model year 88, the DME control unit S is capable of a self-diagnosis.
That is to say, the control unit is capable of detecting, storing and displaying system errors. The con- trol unit capable of diagnosis is identified by an altered part number. Page 15 Connection in the S In the S, the diagnosis socket is attached to a separate cable harness located above DME control unit. Ignition off After connecting the tester, the following dis- play must appear. Display: If this is not the case, check the tester ter Page 16 Round plug Pin 4 Pin 1 Pin 7 Pin 6 The ignition must not be switched off Pin 2 during the entire error diagnosis procedure.
Pin 5 Pin 3 Connection in the S Printed in Germany - XVI, Page 17 Starting error diagnosis Condition: Engine off Ignition on Display: Press the green key until the clear symbol appears on the function display. Display: The diagnosis sequence for the DME control unit then takes place.
Starting error diagnosis Printed in Germany - XVI, Maintenance, Self-diagnosis If an error is displayed - take the note of the error e. Page 18 Press the green key until the clear symbol ap- pears on the function display. The following display must then appear. Display: This now terminates diagnosis of the DME control unit. Page Function Check Actuator and input signal function checking An actuator and input signal function check can be carried out independently of an error diagnosis.
This function check tests individual components or electrical signals with respect to their functioning or signal paths. Functions ara triggered from the diagnosis tester. Page 20 Press the green key until the ctear symbol pears on the function display. This activates the first testing step and the injection valves are activated.
Display: The injection valves must all operate audibly or tangibly. Note: If later attempts are made to start the engine, starting difficulties may occur because a slight residual amount of fuet is injected during this Page 21 As from the "idle contact" testing step, specific controls must additionally be operated on the car for the purpose of function checking. Idle contact display: Slightly press the accelerator. The LED must go off after approx. Page 22 Initiale the air-conditioning control terminal testing step.
Display: Switch on the air-conditioning system. The LED must go off and the display will appear after approx. Display: If this is not the case, an error has occurred the area of the air-conditioning system's wiring. Page 23 Press the green key until the clear symbol appears. Display: End of the actuator and input signal function checks.
Actuator and input signal function checking Printed in Germany - XVI, Maintenance, Self-diagnosis 03 - Page 24 03 - 12 Blank page Page 26 03 - 14 Blank page Page 27 System adaption System adaption can be carried out with the tester. That is to say. Note: For system adaption, it is necessary for the engine to be at operating temperature.
Page 28 03 - 16 Blank Page Page Knock Detection Knock detection Before knock detection is carried out, error diagnosis must first of all be performed to guarantee that no electrical error has occurred in the area of the knock control and the knock sensors.
Knock detection should not be carried out if the customer has complained about poor out- put or too high a consumption, for instance. Page 30 The tester is now active. If knocking occurs, this will be indicated by the tester, e. Display: Counting is now complete. The number af knocks is displayed in per mill. Page Troubleshooting Troubleshooting Diagnosis using the tester can refer only to the error path, but not to a defective component. Note: Before troubleshooting, the entire error memory must be read out.
Page 32 Error code This error code indicates an error in the area of the idle contact. Possible error: Ground fault Switch stuck Testing the idle contact Extract the plug from the DME control unit. Page 33 Error code This error code draws attention to an error in the area of the full load contact. Possible errors: Ground fault Switch stuck Testing the full load contact Connect an ohmmeter between terminal 53 and terminal 24 on the DME plug.
The engine temperature sensor NTC 2 in- forms the control unit about the current engine Page 36 Error code When this error code appears, the Lambda control has detected too rich ar too lean a mixture. Possible causes for too lean a mixture: Lambda probe ground fault Intiltrated air on the intake side Intiltrated air on the exhaust side of the Lambda probe Injection valve does not open Ignition cut-out Page 37 Measure the voltage between pin 1 and engine ground.
The voltage is within the range of approx. Check the cable harness to the DME control unit with reference to the circuit diagram. Troubleshooting Printed in Germany - XVI, Maintenance, Self-diagnosis Page 38 Error code This error code draws attention to an error in the area of knock sensor 1. Page 39 Error code Error code draws attention to an error in the area of the knock control in the DME con- trol unit.
If this error code appears, the control unit must be replaced. Troubleshooting Printed in Germany - XVI, Maintenance, Self-diagnosis Error code This error code draws attention to an error in Page 40 Testing the Hall generator's power supply Disconnect the Hall generator's connector.
If this is not the case, check the wiring with reference to the circuit diagram. Page Table Of Contents Error code - List Error code A digit 2 e. This does not apply to error codes and Page 42 03 - 30 Blank page Page 43 Resetting the error memory Once the DME control unit error diagnosis has been completed.
The error memory cannot be reset as follows until this error code appears: The yellow key must be pressed until the function symbol see display appears on the function display. Page 45 Self-diagnosis Operating instructions for System Tester Operating instructions for System Tester 03 - 33 Printed in Germany - XXIV, Page System Adaptation 1.
General information 1. All systems which have a diagnosis interface as per ISO Standard can be tested with this tester. Page 47 - Accessory - Item 1 Charger with connecting cable, 1. There then follows the display of the number of errors which are stored if any. Page 49 Key 1 selects the next actuator e. Page 50 Proceed with key 1 Prerequisite: Eng.
If key 1 is pressed: Start engine! Following engine start there appears: System is being adapted Page 51 BOSCH Part No. Systemtester Page 52 10 - Blank page Page 54 Tolerances and wear limits Engine M Page 55 Tolerances and wear limits Engine M Page 56 Tolerances and wear limits Engine M
The Porsche is a sports car manufactured by German automobile manufacturer Porsche from to With overcars produced, the was the most successful sports car in Porsche's history until the introductions of the Boxster and Carrera. Extensive design revisions for the model year prompted Porsche to drop the nameplate and rebrand the vehicle as the Ina replacement for the Volkswagen version of thecode named EA began development.
The model was to be sold as an Audi as part of the VW-Audi-Porsche marketing arrangement. Porsche was to manufacture its own version of the car. Although testing had begun in the Spring ofVolkswagen cancelled the EX program, the reason being significant financial losses due to declining sales and rising development costs for new vehicles as well as the departure of Leidig. The cancellation of the EX program led Porsche to market an entry level car to replace the Ewhich was a US-only stop-gap model forand their version of thewhich was discontinued in Porsche purchased the design and the finished development mule with a Bosch K-Jetronic mechanical fuel injection system from Volkswagen.
The vehicle, dubbed thereceived positive reviews, but was criticised by Porsche enthusiasts for its Audi-sourced 2. InPorsche introduced a Turbocharged version of the to increase performance, but this model carried a high price. Rather than scrapping the model from its line-up, Porsche decided to develop theas they had done with generations of the ; although model numbers would change, the would provide the basis for this new mid level model.
The prototype of this mid level model debuted at LeMans inan unusual strategy implemented by Porsche at the time. Called the GTP LeMans, the car was based on the Carrera GT LeMans that competed in the event prior to the GTP's introduction.
The most noticeable change in the new race car was the departure from the Audi sourced 2. The new engine was mounted at an angle of 45 degree to the right and utilised a dual overhead camshaft along with counter rotating balance shafts, an unusual and unique feature for its time that provided better weight distribution and ensured smooth power delivery by eliminating inherent vibrations resulting in the engine lasting longer.
A single KKK turbocharger producing The engine also utilised Bosch's prototype Motronic engine management system to control ignition timing, fuel injection and boost pressure. The new race car proved to be much more fuel efficient than its predecessor, stopping only 21 times in 24 hours for fuel. InPorsche debuted the production road legal version of the race car, called the The car utilised many technologies its race bred sibling had used, including the balance shafts and the engine management system, but power was toned down for safety purposes.
Not typical in luxury sports cars, the four-cylinder engine was chosen for fuel efficiency and size, because it had to be fitted from below on the Neckarsulm production line. To overcome roughness caused by the unbalanced secondary forces that are typical of inline four-cylinder engines, Porsche included two counter-rotating balance shafts running at twice the engine speed. Invented in by British engineer Frederick Lanchesterand further developed and patented in by Mitsubishi Motorsbalance shafts carry eccentric weights which produce inertial forces that balance out the unbalanced secondary forces, making a four-cylinder engine feel as smooth as a six-cylinder engine.
Porsche spent some time trying to develop their own system, but when they realised that they could not improve on the system developed by Mitsubishi, they chose to pay the licensing fees rather than come up with a variation just different enough to circumvent the patent. Revised bodywork with wider wheel arches, similar to that of the Carrera GTa fresh interior and upgrades to the braking and suspension systems rounded out the major changes.
Porsche introduced the for the model year. It was slightly faster despite having a poorer drag coefficient[ clarification needed ] was better equipped and more refined than the ; it had better handling and stopping power, and was more comfortable to drive.
The car had a nearly even front to rear weight distribution In mid, the underwent its first significant changes, these included: new dashboard and door panels, embedded radio antenna, upgraded alternator from 90 amp to ampincreased oil sump capacity, new front and rear cast alloy control arms and semi-trailing arms, larger fuel tank, optional heated and powered seats, Porsche HiFi sound system, and revisions in the mounting of the transaxle to reduce noise and vibration.
The front windshield was now a flush-mounted unit. For the model year, the Motronic DME was updated, and newly incorporated elements included anti-lock braking system and airbags. In early before the release of the S2, Porsche upgraded the 's engine from the 2. In addition to the increase in displacement, the new engine featured a siamesed-cylinder block design and a different cylinder head which incorporated larger valves. InAmerican tuning company Callaway Cars began offering a turbocharged package for the US-Spec in collaboration with Porsche.
The standard 2. Callaway engineers overcame this problem by increasing the volume of the engine's combustion chambers by milling away metal from both piston heads and chamber walls and by tweaking the Motronic system so it would ensure optimum fuel injection to the turbocharged engine along with installing their own Microfueler unit.
This step was highly effective, but required disassembly of the entire engine, leading to the high cost of the package. The resulting engine's compression ratio was of 8. In order to ensure that there were no serious engine breakdowns, Callaway installed an ubiquous internal waste gate recommending the use of octane fuel in order for increased engine reliability. In addition to that, an IHI RHB6 turbocharger was installed on the right hand side of the engine along with a new free flow exhaust system incorporating a larger exhaust pipe for optimum performance.
The small turbocharger eliminated turbo-lag thus ensuring linear levels of boost. Callaway quoted that the acceleration times would even be lower if the rev limiter was removed. Only 20 cars were produced making it one of the rarest Porsche s produced. For the model year, Porsche introduced the Turbo, known internally as the The Turbo was the first Porsche production car utilising a ceramic port liner to retain exhaust gas temperature along with new forged pistons and was also the first vehicle to produce an identical power output with or without a catalytic converter.
The Turbo also featured several other changes, such as improved aerodynamics, notably an integrated front bumper. The Turbo's front and rear brakes were borrowed from thewith Brembo 4-piston fixed calipers and inch discs. Engine component revisions, more than thirty in all, were made to the to compensate for increased internal loads and heat.
Changes occurred for the model year. Interior wise, the North American variant of the Turbo became the first production car in the world to be equipped with driver and passenger side air bags as standard equipment. Also included was the deletion of the transmission oil cooler, and a change in suspension control arms to reduce the car's scrub radius.
Like the standardABS now became an available option. This higher output was achieved by using a larger KKK K turbocharger housing and revised engine mapping which allowed maintaining maximum boost until 5, rpm, compared to the standard Turbo, the boost would decrease from 0.
The air conditioning dryer lines were routed so as to clear the front frame brace on the driver's side. The Turbo S wheels, known as the Club Sport design, were inch Fuchs forged and flat-dished, similar to the Design 90 wheel. The front and rear fender edges were rolled to accommodate the larger wheels. The Turbo S' front brakes were borrowed from the S4, with larger Brembo GT 4-piston fixed calipers and inch discs; rear Brembo brakes remained the same as a standard Turbo.
ABS also came standard. In and later production years, the 'S' designation was dropped from the Turbo S, and all of the turbocharged iterations of the featured the Turbo S enhancements as standard, however the "M" suspension and the Club Sport wheels were not part of that standard.
For the model year, the S the S being the abbreviation of S uper was introduced. The alternator capacity was amps. The wheel bearings were also strengthened and the brake servo action was made more powerful. Floating calipers were standard, but the rear wheel brake circuit pressure regulator from the turbo was used. Small '16 Ventiler' script badges were added on the sides in front of the body protection mouldings.
Like the Turbo, the S received progressive springs for improved handling, larger front and rear anti-roll bars, revised transmission and gearing to better suit the 2. Dual safety air bags, limited-slip differential, and ABS braking system were optional on the S. This version was raced in Canada, Europe and in the IMSA Firehawk Cup Series held in the U. Production was only during and It was superseded in by the 'S2' version.
The S2 had the same rounded nose and a rear valance found on the Turbo model. A Club Sport touring package M was also available. Dual air bags left hand drive modelslimited-slip differential and ABS were optional. Design 90 inch cast alloy wheels were standard equipment. InPorsche introduced the S2 Cabriolet, the first to feature a convertible body style. The S2's body was manufactured by ASC American Sunroof Company in Weinsberg, Germany. The first year of production included 16 S2 Cabriolet manufactured for the U.
For the model year, Porsche produced 3, cars for all markets including right-hand drive units for the United Kingdom, Australia and South Africa. Porsche initially announced that cars would be made; ultimately were built, of which were right-hand drive for the United Kingdom, Japanese, Australian, and South African markets.
None were imported to the U. In earlyPorsche engineers began working on what they had intended to be the third evolution of thethe S3. As they progressed with the development process, they realised that so many parts were being changed that they had produced an almost entirely new vehicle. The 's final year of production was with over 4, cars built and sold.
Inthe debuted and was sold alongside the untilwhen both water-cooled front engine models were discontinued without a direct successor. The modifications resulted in improved acceleration in higher rev range, flatter cornering, more precise steering, improved responsiveness, confidence inspiring handling leading to an overall sharper response. The S2 SE prototypes are regarded as the inspiration and in part development for the later Club Sport.
A grand totalcars in the family were produced between and The successor to the was thewhich was introduced in the model year and was based on an evolution of the same front-engine, transaxle platform of the A total ofs were made between andwith 56, being exported to the United States. A project joint venture with Porsche and Callaway resulted in 20 specially built turbo 's built for the US market in A different source, Jerry Sloniger's article in the October issue of Excellenceindicates that the factory builtof which were exported to markets outside Germany.
A total of 12, S models were produced from towith 8, being exported to the United States. In a Prototype S Cabriolet 'Studie' built by Braun was powered by the 2. A total of around 14, S2's were made between andwith 3, being exported to the United States. Porsche began a race series for the top-of-the line Turbo in the mids. There were five championship series: one in France, one in Germany, one in South Africa, one in Canada, and one in the United States.
Each had a different number of cars competing. The Turbo Cup cars developed for the series had substantial upgrades over their road going counterparts. Cup cars are identified having the last 4 VIN digits from to  .